‘Matching Offline Tool’ for matching GSTR 2B with purchase register- FAQs & User Manual

GSTN released FAQ & User Manual on ‘Matching Offline Tool’ for matching GSTR 2B with purchase register

GSTN has released FAQ and user manual on Matching Offline Tool which facilitates matching of auto drafted details in Form GSTR-2B with purchase register. The document contains detailed set of FAQs on the usage of offline tool such as download and install Matching Offline Tool, viewing Form GSTR-2B files in the tool, viewing match results, etc. along with relevant screenshots.

(A) About Matching Offline Tool

Matching Offline Tool is an offline tool to view Form GSTR 2B and match the auto drafted details in Form GSTR-2B with the purchase register. The match results are used to create the matching report in offline mode.

The taxpayer need to install Matching Tool from the GST Portal, and then add profile to match Form GSTR-2B details with the purchase register details. The Form GSTR-2B JSON files are downloaded from the GST Portal and then viewed and opened in the Matching tool to match details.

The details from both the documents are matched on the basis of defined parameters. The taxpayer can filter and sort match results using features provided in the tool. The tool enables the taxpayer to download the matching results in a csv format.

The key features of Matching Offline Tool is that the setails can be matched offline with no connection to Internet.

(B) FAQs > Download and Install Matching Offline Tool

B.1. Download Matching Offline Tool

1. From where can I download and use the Matching Offline Tool in my system?

To download and open the Matching Tool in your system from the GST Portal, perform following steps:

1. Access the GST Portal: www.gst.gov.in.

2. Go to Downloads > Offline Tools > Matching Offline Tool option and click on it.

3. Select Download.

4. Click Proceed.

5. Unzip the downloaded Zip file which contain Matching Offline Tool.exe.

6. Open the Matching Offline Tool.exe by double clicking on it.

7. Select the folder where you intend to install the Matching Offline Tool.

8. Click Next.

9. Click Install.

10. Click Finish.

11. Open the Matching Offline Tool by double clicking on it.

Note: Downloading the Matching Offline Tool is a one-time activity. However, the Tool may get updated in future. So, always use the latest version available on the GST Portal.

2. Do I need to login to GST Portal to download the Matching Offline Tool?

No, you can download the Matching Offline Tool under ‘Downloads’ section without logging in to the GST Portal.

3. Do I need special access to download the Matching Offline Tool?

Yes, you require admin access on your machine to download the Matching Offline Tool.

4. What are the basic system requirements/configurations required to use Matching Offline Tool?

The offline functions work best on Windows 7 and above and MS EXCEL 2007 and above.

5. Is Matching Offline Tool mobile compatible?

As of now, Matching Offline Tool cannot be used on mobile. It can only be used on desktop/laptops.

6. What does downloaded zip folder for Matching Offline Tool contains?

The Zip folder downloaded from the GST portal will consist of the following:

  • Installation file for the offline tool .exe format (Set up file)
  • ‘Read me’ explaining in detail the prerequisites with respect to system requirements and steps for installation of the offline tool
  • Offline tool taxpayer manual
  • Change history text file
  • Purchase register template

B.2. Manage Profile

7. Does the Matching Offline Tool contain any Help for each page?

Once you open the tool, you will notice detailed instructions (Contextual to that page) to use the tool, using HELP link on the top-right corner of the tool at each page.

8. Can I access Matching Offline tool without creating profile in Offline tool?

No, you cannot access Matching Offline tool without creating a profile in it.

9. How can I add my profile in Matching Offline Tool?

To add your profile in Matching Offline Tool, navigate to Manage Profile at landing page of Matching Offline Tool > Add Profile.

10. Can I add multiple profiles in Matching Offline Tool?

Yes, you can add multiple profiles in Matching Offline Tool. However, profile for each GSTIN must be unique.

11. How can I edit the previously saved profile in Matching Offline Tool?

To edit the previously saved profile in Matching Offline Tool, navigate to Manage Profile at landing page of Matching Offline Tool > Modify Profile.

12. Can I directly open my profile by entering details on the landing page, without adding my profile in the Matching Offline Tool?

No, in order to open your profile in the Matching Offline Tool you must first create your profile using the Add Profile option.

13. Can I remove multiple records from the Matching Offline Tool?

Yes, you can remove multiple records from the Matching Offline Tool using the Delete button available on the Modify Profile page.

(C) FAQs > View Form GSTR-2B Files in Matching Tool

C.1. Download Form GSTR-2B JSON files from GST Portal

14. Do I need to login to GST Portal to download Form GSTR-2B JSON file?

Yes, you must login in to the GST Portal to download GSTR-2B JSON file.

15. From where can I download the Form GSTR-2B JSON file?

You can download the Form GSTR-2B JSON file from Services → Returns → Returns Dashboard → Select the FY and Return period → GSTR-2B tile (Download) → Download JSON

16. Where can I find the downloaded JSON files from the GST Portal?

The JSON files downloaded from the GST Portal gets saved in the Downloads folder on your machine.

C.2. Open JSON Files in the Matching Tool

17. Do I need to open the Matching Offline Tool to open the JSON files downloaded from the GST Portal?

Yes, you need to click the Matching Offline Tool icon on your system to access the tool and enter the details on the Home screen, such as GSTIN, Financial year, and Tax Period, and then click Proceed.

18. Can I directly View and Match files in the Matching Offline Tool?

No, you must first open the downloaded files in the Matching Offline Tool, and then only match them with the purchase register records.

19. How would I get to know that the JSON files are imported in the Matching Offline Tool?

A success message will be displayed on the screen on successful import. The system will display an error message in case the JSON files are not imported.

(D) FAQs > Import Purchase Register in the Matching Tool

20. From where can I download the Purchase Register in the Matching Tool?

After the Form GSTR-2B details downloaded, the Purchase Register is imported in the Matching Tool using the IMPORT EXCEL/CSV option under Import Purchase Register section.

21. Can I maintain my Purchase Register in a format other than provided on GST portal?

Purchase register maintained in a format other than the template provided as part of Matching offline tool will not get imported into the tool.

22. What will happen once the Purchase Register is imported in the Offline Tool?

Once the Purchase Register is imported in the Offline Tool, you can:

  • View the details as imported from the Purchase Register
  • Remove all the entries imported from the Purchase Register
  • Compare/Match the entries of imported Purchase Register with the entries of Form GSTR-2B

(E) FAQs > Match Results

23. What are different categories of matching results?

There are six categories of matching results available in the tool, as explained in table below:

Categories of matching results Matching Parameters

Exact match (All 7 parameters match)


2. Document type

3. Document number

4. Document date

5. Total taxable value

6. Total tax amount <Sum of IGST+CGST+SGST+CESS>

7. Tax amount head wise

Partial match (6 out of 7 parameters match) Partial Match is where GSTIN and Document type match and there is mismatch in only one parameter among the following listed parameters in Form GSTR‑2B and PR:

1. Document number

2. Document date

3. Total taxable value

4. Total tax amount <Sum of

5. Tax amount head wise

Probable match (6 out of 7 parameters match) Probable Match, if there is mismatch in one parameter among the parameters listed at Sr. no. 1 & 2. However, parameters 3 to 7 are matching in GSTR -2B and PR:


2. Document type

3. Document number

4. Document date

5. Total taxable value

6. Total tax amount <Sum of IGST+CGST+SGST+CESS>

7. Tax amount head wise

Unmatched A record is said to be Unmatched, with a score of 4/7 or 5/7, if the following parameters match:

  • Document type
  • Document number <Including approximation logic, if any>
  • Document date

BUT there is a mismatch on one or more of following parameters, beyond the tolerance limit set:

  • Total taxable value
  • Total tax amount <Sum of IGST+CGST+SGST+CESS>
  • Tax amount head wise
  • Integrated tax
  • Central tax
  • State/UT tax
  • CESS
In GSTR-2B not in PR All documents that exist in Form GSTR-2B, but could not be found in PR, (i.e. not classified in any of the Categories of matching results above), will be classified in this category.
In PR not in GSTR-2B All documents that exist in PR, but could not be found in Form GSTR-2B, (i.e. not classified in any of the Categories of matching results above), will be classified in this category.

24. What is the function of the Refine Matching Result option on the Matching Tool?

The REFINE MATCHING RESULT option enables you to refine the match results by altering the tolerance value for Integrated, Central, State/UT tax or Cess.

You may also apply approximation logic on the document number to match the details of Form GSTR-2B with PR.

25. How much is the limit of tolerance that I can choose to refine match results?

The Matching Tool enables you to select the tolerance value from 0 to 10 to refine match results.

26. Is the tolerance value applied on the consolidate tax amount?

No, the tolerance value is applied on the individual tax amount such as, Integrated, Central, State/UT tax or Cess.

Random: eBay User Makes Small Fortune Selling Old Pokémon Game Boxes And Manuals In ‘Good’ Condition

Pokemon IMG

Want to make some easy money, but don’t want to part with your precious video games? Well, at least not entirely. Then just sell the boxes and manuals separately. They don’t even need to be in top condition.

An eBay user, located in the US, has just banked $1375.00 selling an assorted bunch of Pokémon boxes and manuals dating back to the Game Boy, Game Boy Color, Game Boy Advance, and DS era. Noticeably these items are in ‘good’ condition. Yep!

Nintendo Pokemon Game Cases and Manuals Lot Game Boy, DS,(Games not Included).. Condition is Good. Shipped with USPS Priority Mail Medium Flat Rate Box.condition of cases boxes and manuals varies.being sold as is. big box for pokemon soul silver does not have manual.again this lot does not include any games

As you can see, there’s Pokémon Blue, Pokémon Silver all the way through to Pokémon White. There are even some spin-offs in there like Pokémon Pinball for the Game Boy Color and Pokémon Mystery Dungeon: Blue Rescue Team.

Have you got any of these Pokémon games sitting around your place? Would you be willing to part with the boxes and manuals for a small fortune like this? Tell us down below.

Please note that some external links on this page are affiliate links, which means if you click them and make a purchase we may receive a small percentage of the sale. Please read our FTC Disclosure for more information.

Caregivers Of Dementia Persons Now Have ‘IKEA Catalogue’, For Home DIY Hacks

Lien Foundation Makes IKEA-Style Catalogue To Help Dementia Persons

Dementia is a challenging illness which is indiscriminate and could befall any one. Those diagnosed see their daily lives disrupted and simple chores turn into insurmountable tasks.

Old-age illnesses not only impact the patients, but their loved ones and caregivers as well.

Lien Foundation, a Singapore-based philanthropic organisation that seeks to improve the lives of seniors and low-income families, has stepped up to this challenging task.

On Sunday (13 Sep), the foundation launched an interactive visual ‘IKEA Catalogue’ online for caregivers of dementia.


HACK CARE illustrates more than 240 pages of ideas, practical hacks and tips to simplify life for these caregivers.

It comes with step-by-step online instruction manuals for a DIY-approach for dementia persons.

There’s also a physical edition available for those who prefer a manual they can pick up.


‘IKEA catalogue’ helps create environments to assist dementia persons

The virtual interactive catalogue combines the design and research expertise from architects, and product & furniture designers.

Professionals from places like Alzheimer’s Disease Association (ADA), Brahm Centre and Khoo Teck Puat Hospital also lent their knowledge on the caregiving journey.

One of the most important aspects of the home they have conceptualised is the visual environment.

As dementia progresses, certain visual stimuli can be disorienting and confusing which results in fear.


It then becomes difficult to interpret what one sees.

Therefore, creating visual environments that are calm and easy to understand creates visual clarity at home for the dementia person.


Habitable space is experienced through furniture and its spatial arrangements.

In ‘The New Room’ chapter, it can continuously be reconfigured to enhance a richer and healthier lives for the carers and the cared.

Hacking time & light for a dementia-friendly home

The progression of the day and time influences our body system by internalising the temporal cue from the variation in sunlight.


In the ‘Time & Light‘ chapter,  it explores a way to manipulate the ‘biological clock’ to send appropriate signals for mealtimes, activity and rest.


Keeping active to stimulate the brain

Fidget Play involves the tactile sensation when we twiddle our thumbs or run our fingers through things on surfaces.

This physical movement of fidgeting is both therapeutic and productive for dementia.


By fiddling around with various items, persons with dementia can keep their mind and body active.

Using mealtimes for bonding

For many, we look to mealtimes the most. Not only because we get to eat scrumptious food, the conversation and bonding creates a joyful time.

The ‘Mealtime‘ chapter shares ideas and reasons why mealtimes are opportune activities to exercise choice, cognition and coordination.


For example, they recommend using bright plates and utensils so that dementia persons can recognise their food more easily.


Caring for dementia persons shouldn’t be a chore

We want to take this opportunity to salute and express our gratitude to caregivers who put in time and effort to care for their loved ones or persons with dementia.

While it may get challenging sometimes, take heart in knowing that the community supports persons with dementia and roots for the caregivers.

Have news you must share? Get in touch with us via email at hello@mustsharenews.com.

Featured image adapted from Facebook

Hyundai Venue loses the manual transmission for 2021

2021 Hyundai Venue

No more manual for this cute ute.


Hyundai’s little Venue crossover is not only cool-looking but also exceedingly affordable, as new cars go. When it launched, enthusiasts were undoubtedly excited to see that the base transmission option was a good, old-fashioned six-speed manual with the CVT being optional.

Three-pedal cars are becoming rarer and rarer at any price point, so seeing one in a popular form factor seemed like it might just show manufacturers that manuals aren’t dead. Only, in this case, that didn’t happen, and now, thanks to an announcement made on Friday, we know that the manual option is dead for the 2021 model year.

Why? Well, because nobody bought it. Unlike in many other countries, where manual transmissions are still common, even knowing how to use one is becoming a somewhat rare skill for American drivers — just 18% according to a 2018 report by US News & World Report — and that number is likely to continue dropping.

So, where does this leave you if you had your heart set on a row-your-own crossover? Well, you’re not totally boned. You can still pick up the Subaru Crosstrek and Kia Soul with a manual transmission. If you don’t need a crossover and care more about the gearbox, Hyundai still offers its Accent, Elantra GT and Veloster with six-speeds.

Garuda adopts Alibaba cloud technology for cost efficiency

Garuda Indonesia, the country’s flag carrier, has adopted cloud technology from the Chinese company Alibaba Cloud for cost efficiency as Alibaba launches a lightweight personal cloud computer and an autonomous delivery robot.

Garuda IT digital transformation senior manager Pungky Prasetyawan said that by adopting cloud technology, the company had seen more than a 60 percent improvement in cost efficiency.

“In the face of challenges [brought about] by the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting travel restrictions globally, Garuda Indonesia has been looking for a digital transformation solution,” he said during a media briefing on Thursday.

He added that after migrating to cloud computing, the company was able to have more teams work remotely.

As the technology reduced network latency, Garuda’s corporate website, mobile application gateway and booking and ticketing services had become faster, he added.

As of July, the airline had seen a 61 percent year-on-year (yoy) drop in total passengers, down to 3.6 million passengers, as the pandemic all but grounded the travel industry. Garuda also recorded a US$712.73 million loss in the first half of this year after booking net profits of $24.11 million in the same period last year.

Garuda began its migration to cloud technology in 2015, transferring its on-premise e-mail to the cloud and distributing aircraft manuals online, among other changes.

Alibaba Cloud is working with telecommunication company Indosat Ooredoo and cloud service provider ViBiCloud to provide a cloud data center for Garuda.

“Our proprietary cloud technologies will help Garuda Indonesia continue to deliver innovation and agility in the market, offering a seamless user experience for consumers in Indonesia,” Alibaba Cloud Indonesia country manager Leon Chen said.

Alibaba plans to create a third cloud center in Indonesia by 2021 after establishing its first two data centers in 2018 and 2019.

On Thursday, Alibaba launched a lightweight personal cloud computer and an autonomous delivery robot, among other technologies, during its annual Apsara Conference.

Alibaba launched a last-mile delivery robot called Xiomanlv on Thursday. The robot aims to assist in the delivery of packages to campuses and business parks in China.Alibaba launched a last-mile delivery robot called Xiomanlv on Thursday. The robot aims to assist in the delivery of packages to campuses and business parks in China. (Courtesy of Alibaba/-)

Alibaba cloud intelligence president Jeff Zhang said that the recent changes brought about by the pandemic, namely the rise of remote work and e-commerce, had led the company to create relevant solutions.

“As working from home becomes the new norm during and after the pandemic, we hope our cloud computer can help people access resilient computing power whenever they need to with a tiny personal computer,” he said in a speech during the conference.

He added that the computer could be used to conduct complex tasks that usually required sophisticated PCs, such as video editing, software development and online customer service.

The computer is a palm-sized device that can be connected to a normal computer screen. Users can access computing resources by subscription or by actual data consumption.

Alibaba launched a lightweight cloud computer on Thursday. The device can be connected to a normal computer screen to enable remote work.Alibaba launched a lightweight cloud computer on Thursday. The device can be connected to a normal computer screen to enable remote work. (Courtesy of Alibaba/-)

While the computers are currently available only to enterprise customers, the company said the devices would soon be available for purchase by individuals.

Zhang also introduced an autonomous last-mile delivery robot called Xiomanlv to cater to the growing need for fast delivery services in China. The country is expected to see more than 1 billion packages delivered each day in the coming years.

The delivery robot is estimated to be able to deliver up to 500 packages a day to one designated community or campus and can travel 100 kilometers on a single charge.

“We are expecting a rapid jump in delivery demand brought about by thriving new retail in the increasingly digitalized world,” Zhang said, adding that the robot would complement Alibaba’s logistics platform Cainiao to serve communities, campuses and business parks in China.

The Apsara conference will also be a launching ground for various cloud products, such as the Cloud Lakehouse big data architecture and Lindorm, a multi-model database to support the Alibaba Group ecosystem. (eyc)

The Cult of Presidential “Leadership”

We live in an anxious society almost pathologically obsessed with leadership. Self-help books package its secrets for frustrated middle managers. Websites offer listicles of tips for how to make leaders of your children. (“Teach them to be winners,” suggests Inc.com. “Surround them with leaders,” offers Lifehack.org, threateningly.) Universities offer undergraduate majors in the subject. And every presidential campaign inspires countless stories about men and women making “bold choices” and taking “decisive action.”

Journalists present these vanquishing heroes as great leaders of men, forged in crisis—their devotion to the myth of presidential leadership being a natural by-product of a media industry preoccupied by speculations about the persona of the person in the Oval Office. If Donald Trump came to power promising a fantasy of manly executive strength, then Joe Biden is selling a new brand of leadership. Waging what Time called an “empathy offensive” after George Floyd’s death, the Biden campaign has consistently emphasized his moral and emotional traits over any ideological program: It’s his dignity and decency that will redeem the “soul of the nation.” For liberals, leadership is what sets their candidate apart from the president: While the neophyte Trump is snarling, impulsive, and petty, the former Delaware senator and vice president exudes restraint and smiling bonhomie.

The contrast between Trump’s macho authoritarianism and Biden’s recent turn as soul-searching empath mixes two broad trends in how “leadership” has been marketed in the United States. Nineteenth-century self-help manuals lionized “men of industry,” like Francis Pettit Smith, the designer of a new type of steamship propeller. Smith “was not a great inventor,” wrote Samuel Smiles in his 1884 book, Men of Invention and Industry. What Smith had was “determined tenacity,” an aggressive trait that the average person could develop, much like the “controlled neurosis” Trump advised his own readers to adopt in The Art of the Deal.

If Trump is a throwback to the Great Men of Industry tradition, Biden embodies a more recent mode of leadership advice that emphasizes more feminized social traits. In 2017, he said that in order to find “that sweet spot between success and happiness,” you have to be “personal.” Biden will “elevate the voices” of others, his campaign site assures us.

In 2016, Joshua Rothman of The New Yorker remarked that our national faith in leadership “survives, again and again, our disappointment with actual leaders.” But it is precisely our disappointment in our leaders that keeps us coming back for more. Presidential campaigns, like self-help books, trade in both despair and hope, preying on the disenchantment of their readers, even as they offer them faith that things will change—a combination that only works as a selling point so long as little ever does. This is what the promise of “leadership” in American political rhetoric boils down to: a promise to transcend politics and transform the country without inconveniencing anyone.

Psychology Today

 Just Dance/Shuttertock

Male mate poaching.

Source: Just Dance/Shuttertock

Vatsyayan’s Kama Sutra, which is one of the early classic manuals dedicated to love, sex, and attraction, gives advice on how to seduce other men’s wives. Today, such behaviour which can also involve sexually luring males, is referred to as mate poaching and is defined as behaving in a way as to try to romantically attract someone who is currently in a relationship with someone else, for the purpose of either a brief affair or a long-term relationship (Schmitt & Bus (2001).

Numerous studies have confirmed the prevalence of mate poaching, with anything between thirty to 50 percent of people engaging in this behaviour on at least one occasion (Davies, Shackelford & Hass, 2007). Other evidence suggests that some 60 percent of men and 40 percent of women have reported pursuing someone else already in a relationship, and of those pursued, 60 percent of men and 50 percent of women have succumbed to the advances of their pursuers (Schmitt and the International Sexuality Description Project, 2004).

Tactics in mate poaching

The Kama Sutra suggests sending presents and an indication of affection for a woman’s children as a seduction technique. More recent research has uncovered other strategies and tactics employed in mate poaching attempts. For men this includes using humour, being generous or giving compliments, whereas for women, in the short-term mate poaching may include providing easy sexual access and for a long-term mate poaching, might include overtly mentioning seeking a replacement mate (Schmitt & Shackelford, 2003).  

Furthermore, friendship is generally a prerequisite in initiating a romantic liaison, and therefore in their study Justin Mogilski and Joel Wade, investigated the role of friendship as a tactic in mate poaching (Mogilski & Wade, 2023). Fundamentally, they predicted that a poacher would be judged as more likely to be successful if they were close friends with the target of the poaching attempt, and further that the poacher and target would be judged more favourably by others if they were friends as opposed to being acquaintances. Furthermore, they predicted that poachers who were friends with their poaching target would be seen as motivated by efforts to sustain a long-term relationship than poachers who were acquaintances.

Participants in their study were presented with four scenarios describing a mate poaching situation, which described the poacher, (the person attempting the poaching), the poached (the target), and the “poachee” (the person in a relationship with the poached).

The scenarios differed in terms of the gender of the characters described, (man poaching woman or woman poaching man), and whether the relationship between poacher and poached were described as close friends or acquaintances.

Following this, participants were required to judge the poacher’s likelihood of being successful, suffering any future costs from their poaching attempt, the future success of any potential relationship between the poacher and the poached, and approval for any future relationship between them. The researchers also asked participants whether they approved of the poaching attempt, and what type of relationship they thought that the poacher intended to pursue, (a one-night stand, a short-term affair a long-term relationship). 

Finally, participants were asked to rate the poacher and poached in terms of intelligence, physical attractiveness, sexual attractiveness, warmth, dominance, friendliness, masculinity, nurturance, social skills, and whether they would be a good parent or mate. 

The role of friendship

The researchers did indeed find that poachers who were close friends with the person who was the target of the poaching attempt, to be rated as more likely to be successful than poachers who were just acquaintances. Furthermore, any relationship between poacher and the target of the poaching attempt was rated as more likely to last for over a year if they were previously friends as opposed to being mere acquaintances. Finally, if they were described as friends, the target of the poacher was rated as less likely to cheat on the poacher in the future. The researchers interpreted this in terms of friendship being an indication of future investment in the relationship, which supports previous research that friendship is a significant prerequisite for initiating relationships and maintaining them.

Interestingly, however, when the poacher was portrayed as an acquaintance as opposed to a friend, they were rated as more intelligent, friendly, warm and nurturant. Poachers who were friends may have been judged more negatively on these characteristics because ordinarily, friends would not attempt to poach a target for their own ends. No differences were observed between the characteristics of the target of the poaching attempt for warmth, nurturance, friendliness or intelligence between the friendship poaching or the acquaintance poaching conditions. 

In terms of gender differences, when the poacher was described as a man attempting to poach a woman, he was rated as more sexually attractive and intelligent, when the poacher was portrayed as a female attempting to poach a male. 

Motivations of the poacher

Participants were also asked about the motivation of the poaching attempt, that is whether they thought the poacher wanted to have a one-night stand with the target a short-term relationship, or a long-term relationship.

There was no difference in the number of participants who judged the motivation as a one-night stand between friend and acquaintance conditions. However, more people said that acquaintance poachers were motivated by short-term relationships, compared to friend poachers. Whereas, poachers who were friends were judged to be motivated more by long-term relationships compared to poachers who were acquaintances, possibly because initial friendship indicates longer-term relationship motivations.

The overall findings from this study would seem to indicate that people judge poachers who are friends to be more likely to be successful than those who are acquaintances in their poaching attempts probably because friendship is seen as important for future relationship investment, and the poacher may be viewed as a realistic substitute for the target’s current relationship partner. However, the findings also highlight the function of friendship as a realistic relationship infiltration tactic.

PolyU designs new dual-task exercise for stroke patients to effectively reduce the risk of falls and fall-related injuries

HONG KONG, Sept. 17, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in Hong Kong[1], hospitalising around 25,000 people each year[2]. Despite declines in stroke mortality over the past years, it remains one of the major causes of adult disability, greatly affecting the daily lives of sufferers. Individuals with stroke also have a higher risk of fall – up to 73% of patients fall in the first six months after being discharged from hospital.[3]-13] To shed light on ways to reduce the risk of post-stroke falls, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) has conducted the world’s first study to examine the effect of dual-task exercise on dual-task mobility and falls in people living with a chronic stroke, and subsequently designed an eight-week community-based rehabilitation programme for 84 people with chronic stroke.

The study, titled “Dual-Task Exercise Reduces Cognitive-Motor Interference in Walking and Falls after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Study” (link), appeared in Stroke, a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Heart Association. It was revealed that dual-task exercises were able to help reduce the risk of falls and injurious falls by 25.0% and 22.2% respectively, bringing about significant improvement to the dual-task mobility of people post-stroke. As such, the programme has the potential to roll out in community and home-based settings, where healthcare resources are scarce.

According to Professor Marco PANG Yiu-chung, Professor of Department of Rehabilitation Sciences at PolyU, who led the study, single-task training on balance and gait is typically implemented during conventional rehabilitation. However, the rate of falling remains high (up to 73%) after the stroke survivors have returned to community living.[3]-[13] “Fall is one of the most common complications in stroke patients during the post-stroke period, frequently caused by poor dual-task mobility. While the ability to perform mobility and cognitive task simultaneously is essential to people’s daily lives, their dual-tasking performance is often impaired after a stroke,” Professor PANG explained.

For the study, 84 individuals with chronic stroke aged 50 or above with mild or moderate motor impairment (loss of physical function of a body part) were recruited from the community patient groups. They were randomly allocated to three groups (i.e. dual-task group, single-task group and control group). Each group received three 60-minute training sessions per week for eight weeks. The completion time of walking tests and correct response rate of the cognitive tasks of each patient under single-task and dual-task conditions were measured at three different stages: within one week before training commenced (as baseline), within one week after finishing training, and eight weeks after finishing training to assess the dual-task effect on participants. Fall incidence was also recorded monthly for a six-month period post-training.

The study showed the dual-task training was more effective in improving dual-task mobility, and reducing falls and fall-related injuries in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke, as compared with single-task training or controlled intervention. “The dual-task group had a significantly lower proportion of individuals who sustained at least one fall or fall-related injury during the six-month follow-up period. Only five falls were reported in the dual-task group while there were 20 falls in the control group,” Professor PANG said. “As the most commonly perceived cause of falls was related to problems with divided attention, like managing distractions while weight-shifting during standing, dual-task training could be an effective approach to enhancing the multi-task ability and reducing the risk of fall in attention-demanding environments.”

Mr LAU Kim-hung, Chairman of The Hong Kong Stroke Association and one of the chronic stroke participants in this study, said, “After my stroke, I felt frustrated because my mobility had been weakened and my reactions were slow. I found it difficult to multi-task (for example, talking while walking) like I usually do. With the help of these specially designed exercises, my ability to multi-task was improved and, most importantly, I feel more confident when going outside.” He added, “The dual-task exercises are user-friendly and fit easily into my daily life. They only involve some simple setup and require minimal support from my caregivers.”

This research project is funded by the General Research Fund under The Research Grants Council. As many chronic stroke survivors do not have continuous access to rehabilitation support due to limited healthcare resources, the research team is planning to conduct training workshops for clinicians and to develop exercise manuals for patients, caregivers and service providers on dual-task exercise programme so that the dual-task exercises can be widely adopted in the community and home-based settings to help improve patients’ quality of life in a gradual and sustainable way.


  • Number of Deaths by Leading Causes of Death, 2001 – 2019, Centre for Health Protection, Department of Health, The Government of the HKSAR (https://www.chp.gov.hk/en/statistics/data/10/27/380.html)
  • No of Inpatient Discharges and Deaths due to Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Health, The Government of HKSAR (https://www.healthyhk.gov.hk/phisweb/en/healthy_facts/disease_burden/major_causes_death/cere_diseases/)
  • Batchelor FA, Williams SB, Wijeratne T, Said CM, Petty S. Balance and Gait Impairment in Transient Ischemic Attack and Minor Stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015;24(10):2291-2297.
  • Janus-Laszuk B, Mirowska-Guzel D, Sarzynska-Dlugosz I, Czlonkowska A. Effect of medical complications on the after-stroke rehabilitation outcome. NeuroRehabilitation. 2017;40(2):223-232.
  • Czernuszenko A, Czlonkowska A. Risk factors for falls in stroke patients during inpatient rehabilitation. Clin Rehabil. 2009;23(2):176-188.
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  • Liu T-W, Ng SSM. Assessing the fall risks of community-dwelling stroke survivors using the Short-form Physiological Profile Assessment (S-PPA). PLoS ONE. 14(5): e0216769.
  • Celebrating America’s great Constitution

    America today marks the 233rd anniversary of when Americans in those hallowed halls in Philadelphia unleashed the Constitution onto the world.

    Celebrating our Declaration of Independence is important, but it was the Constitution that gave form to the republican form of government that endures to this day. While it may not be at the heart of the political debate, the Constitution remains in our hearts and, especially, on our minds as we contemplate the challenges facing California and America. As such, we’d do well to celebrate Constitution Day again with all the pomp and aplomb it deserves.

    You might ask, then, whether the Constitution is 233 years young or 233 years old. We’d answer by paraphrasing what Ben Franklin is purported to have said after ratification: This republic is ours, but only if we can keep it.

    Though we concede it might seem odd that a newspaper thousands of miles from Washington, D.C., would so venerate a document that, by the standards of the day, grew government, we recognize that, when it comes to government, limited is more and good governance is best.

    We believe as did Calvin Coolidge — among the first politicians to mark Constitution Day publicly in 1917 — that living under the American Constitution is “the greatest political privilege that was ever accorded to the human race.” To be sure, with every privilege comes a duty, and with every exercise of a right comes the responsibility to use it well, so we share the view of Alexander Hamilton — our nation’s first editorialist — that free men must govern themselves by “reflection and choice” and that they ought to be free to choose the best.

    And where best to test those claims than in California, whose own machinery of governance is so dysfunctional?

    Indeed, the Constitution’s insistence on a government of checks and balances is the remedy for much of what ails America and California today — a government, not of laws, but of men seeking unlimited  power. It’s time to go back from whence we came, if only to prevent where we are going.

    And so a little history is essential. Men, as we know from the Constitution’s user manual, “The Federalist Papers,” are not angels and so need government. The only question is whether it is a good or a bad government.

    The framers knew this well and sat down to draft a Constitution in the hot summer of 1787. More than once, the committee threatened to divide along sectional, ideological, and, yes, even personal interests and prevent the consensus necessary. The polling, as we might say today, wasn’t good. They turned to prayer; to the wisdom of the past; and to each other, by and large, men of good will. That’s not to say that there weren’t men of good will who refused to sign it, notably, George Mason.

    Congress has in recent years taken bites out of our liberty but, in the final analysis, Franklin was right when describing his reaction to seeing a sun painted on the chair used by the chairman of the Constitutional Convention. “I have,” Franklin noted, “often and often in the course of the Session, and the vicissitudes of my hopes and fears as to its issue, looked at that [chair] behind the president without being able to tell whether it was rising or setting: But as now at length I have the happiness to know that it is a rising and not a setting Sun.”

    We only hope that the Constitution’s light shines even here in California.

    This editorial was originally published in the Orange County Register in 2012.

    Samsung Galaxy F41 with 64 MP triple cameras, Exynos 9611 SoC expected to debut soon in India

    Samsung is likely to launch its new Galaxy F series soon in the Indian market as a user manual was recently posted on Samsung India’s support page.

    This manual gives the first look at the first member of the new moniker, the Galaxy F41. The user manual was detected by XDA Developers and the portal expects the series to be released in the price range of Rs 15,000- 20,000.

     Samsung Galaxy F41 with 64 MP triple rear cameras, Exynos 9611 SoC expected to debut soon in India

    Samsung Galaxy M51

    According to the screenshots shared by the report, the phone will sport wide and ultrawide cameras. Although nothing is known in detail, the phone is expected to focus on the camera department. The main camera is going to be a 64 MP camera most probably. Tagged with the model number SM-F415F, this device is going to come with a water drop notch screen, triple camera setup at the back, a rear-mounted fingerprint scanner and a headphone jack.

    A dual speaker arrangement will be present in the device and will support fast charging.

    The sim card slot details reveal that it will sport dual-SIMs and a microSD card together. Also, there is the provision of Type-C connectivity.

    Galaxy F41 has also passed two certification tests. My Smart Price detected the device in the listing of Geekbench. The smartphone will be powered with an octa-core Exynos 9611 chipset and will be paired with 6 GB of RAM. The device will run on Android 10 operating system.

    Earlier today, another report by GizChina suggested that the device has been spotted in the certification of Google Play Console. It has reaffirmed the speculations seen in Geekbench and gives insight into some other features of the device.

    Offering a waterdrop notch AMOLED panel, the smartphone will have a screen resolution of 1080 x 2340 pixels. There are going to be three cameras at the back with the main camera being a 64 MP wide lens. But this listing also failed to disclose any details about the third rear camera.